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Post-Crisis Valuation of Derivatives, Jaroslav Baran, 2016

Post-Crisis Valuation of Derivatives, Jaroslav Baran, 2016

basis spread, basis swap, collateral, Cross-currency swap, discount factor, overnight indexed swap, swap spreads

In this study we analyse relationship between classical approach to valuation of linear interest rate derivatives and post-crisis approach when the valuation better reflects credit and liquidity risk and economic costs of the transaction on top of the risk-free rate. We discuss the method of collateralization to diminish counterparty credit risk, its impact on derivatives pricing, and how overnight indexed swap (OIS) rates became market standard for discounting future derivatives’ cash flows. We show that using one yield curve to both estimating the forward rates and discounting the expected future cash flows is no longer possible in arbitrage free market. We review in detail three fundamental interest rate derivatives (interest rate swap, basis swap and cross-currency swap) and we derive discount factors used for calculating the present value of expected future cash flows that are consistent with market quotes. We also investigate drivers behind basis spreads, in particular, credit and liquidity risk, and supply and demand forces, and show how they impact valuation of derivatives. We analyse Czech swap rates and propose an estimation of CZK OIS curve and approximate discount rates in case of cross-currency swaps. Finally, we discuss inflation markets and consistent valuation of inflation swaps.