Research

Quantitative Consulting has many interesting research publications. Some of them were completed for the company purposes and others were outcomes of the academic research of our employees. Some of the content is accessible only after registration of your email address, rest of the content is downloadable from this site.

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Analysing Cross-Currency Basis Spreads, Jaroslav Baran, Jiří Witzany, 2017

Analysing Cross-Currency Basis Spreads, Jaroslav Baran, Jiří Witzany, 2017

arbitrage, basis spread, cointegration, Cross-currency swap, overnight indexed swap

This paper investigates the drivers of cross-currency basis spreads, which were historically close to zero but have widened significantly since the start of the financial crisis. Credit and liquidity risk, as well as supply and demand have often been cited as general factors driving cross-currency basis spreads, however, these spreads may widen beyond what is normally explained by such variables. We suggest market proxies for EUR/USD basis swap spread drivers and build a multiple regression and cointegration model to explain their significance during three different historical periods of basis widening. The most important drivers of the cross-currency basis spreads appear to be short- and medium-term EU financial sector credit risk indicators, and to a slightly lesser extent, short- and medium-term US financial sector credit risk indicators. Another important driver is market volatility for the short-end basis spread, and the EUR/USD exchange rate for the medium term basis spread, and to a lesser extent, the Fed/ECB balance sheet ratio.

04.08.2017

Post-Crisis Valuation of Derivatives, Jaroslav Baran, 2016

Post-Crisis Valuation of Derivatives, Jaroslav Baran, 2016

basis spread, basis swap, collateral, Cross-currency swap, discount factor, overnight indexed swap, swap spreads

In this study we analyse relationship between classical approach to valuation of linear interest rate derivatives and post-crisis approach when the valuation better reflects credit and liquidity risk and economic costs of the transaction on top of the risk-free rate. We discuss the method of collateralization to diminish counterparty credit risk, its impact on derivatives pricing, and how overnight indexed swap (OIS) rates became market standard for discounting future derivatives’ cash flows. We show that using one yield curve to both estimating the forward rates and discounting the expected future cash flows is no longer possible in arbitrage free market. We review in detail three fundamental interest rate derivatives (interest rate swap, basis swap and cross-currency swap) and we derive discount factors used for calculating the present value of expected future cash flows that are consistent with market quotes. We also investigate drivers behind basis spreads, in particular, credit and liquidity risk, and supply and demand forces, and show how they impact valuation of derivatives. We analyse Czech swap rates and propose an estimation of CZK OIS curve and approximate discount rates in case of cross-currency swaps. Finally, we discuss inflation markets and consistent valuation of inflation swaps.

02.08.2017